How to fix Error 18 when Hall sensors are faulty

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romano
Posts: 3
Joined: Thu Oct 03, 2019 10:59 am

How to fix Error 18 when Hall sensors are faulty

Postby romano Sun Oct 27, 2019 7:29 pm

EDIT : added links to AliExpress.

I've seen too many people struggling with the so-called error 18 with their Ninebot ES1, ES2 or ES4. It is a consequence of a controller not being able to retrieve proper values from the Hall sensors.

The best way to investigate the issue is to proceed as follow :
  • Examine the wires (are they melted, is their a short circuit, etc..)
  • Look at the inductors, fuse and resistors just in front of the cables on the ESC. I have embedded a picture below showing standard values (except for 36 kOhm which could be different from one ESC to another)
  • Asses if the sensors inside the wheel are working properly
Image
(note that the circled area is a simple fuse and the bottom black SMC is a inductor such as the one on the top just bellow the fuse)

In this tutorial, we are going to focus on the last point of the list.

Step 1 : identify the faulty sensor(s)
In order to identify if there is a faulty Hall effect sensor, you have to extract the ESC and remove it from the tube metal case. Turn on your escooter. Use a multimeter in Volt mode, place a probe on the pin of the red wire and the other probe on the black wire. You should get around 5 Volt.
Then, for each of signal wire (yellow, green, blue wires) you have to place one probe on the red wire pin and the other probe on each color at a time. Here is the tricky part. You have to keep the 2 probes on the pins and at the same time move gently the wheel. You should see the value of your voltmeter display 1,5/1,7V for each sensor at some point. If the value is not moving toward that value or is fixed then there is a problem on the corresponding Hall sensor.

TLDR : If you area lazy you can find soldered PCB with Hall sensors. I didn't try but here is an example on Ali : https://fr.aliexpress.com/item/40001066 ... 3f3979a787 Beware of the configuration of the center sensor. On the original PCB, Ninebot uses a different Hall effect sensor.

So what do you need?
  • Soldering iron
  • Insulation
  • Glue
  • desoldering braid

Step 2 : Open the wheel
You can other tutorials explaning how to open a wheel, so I won't talk much about it here. Just check this video : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gtR9vCQyFpk. To be honest it's as hard as the guy in this video. The trick : put a small bolt below the axe (on the floor), then place your two feet on each side of the tyre, press the feet and with you hands just pull the stator.

Step 2 : Change the sensor(s)

First you have to remove the plastic/silicon/thermic insulation.

Image
Identify your VCC, GND and Signal legs. The easiest way to do it, is to use the multimeter and see current continuity. Place one probe on the RED wire (VCC) on the ESC and check for each Hall sensor which leg beeps. You can do the same with the black wire (GND) and the 3 colors.
Once it’s done, you have to remove the faulty sensor. You can use a clockmaker screwdriver in order to remove the head of the sensor (it is glued), beware not to fucked the layers of metal pieces. Then unsolder the 3 legs and clean the pin holes with some desoldering braid.

Take a brand new sensor and put back the insulation on each leg.
Image

This part is maybe the one where you have to be cautious. If you purchased the sensors I advised, or a least if you use the same sensors for each position (boundaries and center) you can refer to my scheme.
Image
You have to respect the polarity you have identify at the beginning. Some PCB are different from the one in this tutorial. The important thing, is that the middle sensor has to be reversed. It means that labels are not visible. Also you need to cross the legs. Because it’s reversed, it might not fight in the small notch, so don’t hesitate to rip it a bit.

Image
(yes I know it's not the same colour but you get the idea)

Re-solder everything, do a continuity test on each leg and add some glue in the notch.

Bonus PS : Thanks to @SurgeSPB
Last edited by romano on Thu Nov 14, 2019 6:22 pm, edited 2 times in total.
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Michelle
Posts: 15
Joined: Tue Oct 15, 2019 6:59 pm

Re: How to fix Error 18 when Hall sensors are faulty

Postby Michelle Mon Oct 28, 2019 12:03 am

Thanks Surge&romano! :twisted: ;)
remove
Posts: 25
Joined: Sun Oct 06, 2019 2:53 pm

Re: How to fix Error 18 when Hall sensors are faulty

Postby remove Wed Apr 01, 2020 9:54 am

I have the left sensor broken but it's impossible to take it off. Do you have any suggestions how to remove it?
Firefox8000
Posts: 1
Joined: Thu Apr 02, 2020 5:23 am

Re: How to fix Error 18 when Hall sensors are faulty

Postby Firefox8000 Thu Apr 02, 2020 5:46 am

I have the left sensor broken but it's impossible to take it off. Do you have any suggestions how to remove it?
Heat it up. Either with a hair dryer or a soldering iron (more complex).

@romano : excellent tutorial and it is greatly appreciated! However I have a question, what if one of the resistors are broken? I know the answer: just replace it by a new one, but I read somewhere that it was sufficient to create a bridge with a soldering iron! (The iron is going to mimic the same role of the resistor)

Last but not least, I’m currently making a video tutorial on YT on how to repair error 18, I will give you full credits tho.
Last edited by Firefox8000 on Sat Apr 04, 2020 4:19 am, edited 1 time in total.
remove
Posts: 25
Joined: Sun Oct 06, 2019 2:53 pm

Re: How to fix Error 18 when Hall sensors are faulty

Postby remove Thu Apr 02, 2020 10:11 pm

I have the left sensor broken but it's impossible to take it off. Do you have any suggestions how to remove it?
Heat it up. Either with a hair dryer or a soldering iron (more complex).

@remove : excellent tutorial and it is greatly appreciated! However I have a question, what if one of the resistors are broken? I know the answer: just replace it by a new one, but I read somewhere that it was sufficient to create a bridge with a soldering iron! (The iron is going to mimic the same role of the resistor)

Last but not least, I’m currently making a video tutorial on YT on how to repair error 18, I will give you full credits tho.

OMG why dident I think of that hahaha. Thanks for the help. Really great!
pulsar51
Posts: 1
Joined: Thu Jun 18, 2020 8:10 am

Re: How to fix Error 18 when Hall sensors are faulty

Postby pulsar51 Fri Jun 19, 2020 10:23 am

Thanks for your very clear tutorial. I have a question for you: my ninebot es2 shows the fateful error 18. The connections are all good and there are no short circuits, therefore I am analyzing if the error depends on the motor hub or the controller. The main windings look good. The motor brake seems to work well in short circuit on each couple of conductors and the three hall sensors go up and down between a minimum of 1.6V to 3V referred to the positive pole (from 0V to 1.4V referred to the negative pole).
My doubt is related to the voltage of 5V. The output voltage from the unloaded controller is exactly 5V. When I connect the sensors to the controller, the voltage drops down to about 3V. Thinking about an excessive absorption of the sensors, I tried to supply them with an external 5V source which however remains stable.
This leads me to think that the controller's behavior is abnormal, but before purchasing it unnecessarily I would kindly like your opinion or any suggestions.
Thanks.
BorkoD
Posts: 1
Joined: Thu Sep 03, 2020 6:48 am

Re: How to fix Error 18 when Hall sensors are faulty

Postby BorkoD Thu Sep 03, 2020 6:53 am

Hi

Thanks for a great tutorial.
Could you tell me the model number of those side sensors and center as well, pls? Original ones

Thanks
Davide86
Posts: 1
Joined: Sun Sep 27, 2020 8:52 am

Re: How to fix Error 18 when Hall sensors are faulty

Postby Davide86 Tue Oct 13, 2020 10:04 pm

Thanks for your very clear tutorial. I have a question for you: my ninebot es2 shows the fateful error 18. The connections are all good and there are no short circuits, therefore I am analyzing if the error depends on the motor hub or the controller. The main windings look good. The motor brake seems to work well in short circuit on each couple of conductors and the three hall sensors go up and down between a minimum of 1.6V to 3V referred to the positive pole (from 0V to 1.4V referred to the negative pole).
My doubt is related to the voltage of 5V. The output voltage from the unloaded controller is exactly 5V. When I connect the sensors to the controller, the voltage drops down to about 3V. Thinking about an excessive absorption of the sensors, I tried to supply them with an external 5V source which however remains stable.
This leads me to think that the controller's behavior is abnormal, but before purchasing it unnecessarily I would kindly like your opinion or any suggestions.
Thanks.
Hi, I've the same problem: when connect the sensor the output down from 5V to around 3,5V.
Do you have change the Controller?
Thanks for reply.
backloop13
Posts: 1
Joined: Fri Nov 20, 2020 7:45 pm

Re: How to fix Error 18 when Hall sensors are faulty

Postby backloop13 Fri Nov 20, 2020 7:54 pm

do you get a reference for central sensor with correct position (not reversed) like the original ninebot component (I suppose not the 41f)

3144 ?
Jbc
Posts: 1
Joined: Tue Nov 24, 2020 6:58 am

Re: How to fix Error 18 when Hall sensors are faulty

Postby Jbc Fri Nov 27, 2020 2:48 am

Hi guys,



I've got an issue with my es4. It doesn't work and error 18 is showing on the screen. 

I have read that it could be coming from damaged Hall sensors however my primary concern is that the voltage significantly drops when I connect the motor. I get 5V from the wires running down the stem but as soon as I connect the motor the Voltage drops to 1.7V.

Your help would be highly appreciated!

Cheers 

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